Brown (hue / variety / modifier): Abbreviated (BR). A perceived colour hue resembling chestnuts, chocolate, or freshly dug up soil. The word brown is derived from the old Anglo-Saxon word brun, meaning “burned.” Historical colour records indicate that brown was used as early as the year 1000 A.O. to identify colours that were low saturation (i .e., dull tones of yellow, orange, and red). Brown is a modified spectral colour, produced by a combination of warm colours such as red and yellow mixed with gray. Different gradations of brown are achieved by blending white or black to produce light through dark browns. In the diamond industry, the name brown is used broadly to denote a wide range of colour hues and tones. The lightness for brown diamonds is quite variable and includes a range from very light (smoke) brown to light (champagne) brown, medium (cocoa) brown and dark (coffee) brown through very dark (seal) brown. Saturation in brown diamonds is also variable such as bright (golden) brown and deep (cognac) brown. Popular names for different mixtures of brown are acorn, ale, auburn , autumn, beige, brandy, brick, bronze, brownie, buff, butterscotch, cafe-au-lait, caramel, cedar, champagne, chestnut, chocolate, cinnamon , clove, cocoa, coffee, cognac, copper, cork, dirty, drab, dusty, flesh , garnet, golden, hazel, honey, khaki, leather, mahogany, manila, maple, maroon, muddy, oak, oil, raisin, russet, rust, sand, seal, sepia, sherry, sienna, smoke, sugar, tan, tobacco, topaz, walnut, and zircon. In the diamond trade, brown represents one of the basic twelve colour varieties. Brown diamonds can also contain secondary modifiers such as blackish brown (bk-BR), greenish brown (g-BR), grayish brown (gy-BR) , olivish brown (ol -BR), orangish brown (o-BR}, pinkish brown (pk-BR}, purplish brown (pp-BR}, reddish brown (r-BR) and yellowish brown (y-BR). Brown can also occur as a secondary colour modifier in other colour varieties such as brownish yellow (br-Y), brown-orange (BRO}, etc. When measured with a colorimeter, brown diamonds occupy a large range of three-dimensional colour space, extending from light (Lt) to very very dark (WDk) lightness, and weak (Wk) to moderate-strong (Md-St) saturation. As lightness and saturation increase (bright in tone), the perception of secondary colour modifiers (such as yellowish and orangish} increases proportionately. By comparison, brown diamonds with medium to dark lightness and low saturation (dull in tone) are usually pure brown (BR) with very little if any secondary colour modifiers present